You need an biometrical passport photo for a visa. (change)
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Taking a good starting picture for creating a biometric passport photo is easy. Ideally you have a helping hand for taking the photo, because shoulders and big parts of the upper body are shown on the final photo. Your arms usually are not long enought for this job and sadly a selfie (without a stick) won't work.
At a pinch you can trigger your camera with the built-in timer. The camera then could be placed on a shelf or higboard, so it is at eye-level. You can only find a table? Of course, you could alternatively crouch down or sit on the ground.
For best results take the photo at daytime. The person should look straight towards a window. The face then usually is well lit.
One last thing: look straight towards the camera. You should be facing the camera directly and look straight into the camera's lens.